Dystonia involves overactivity of muscles required for normal movement, with extra force or activation of nearby but unnecessary muscles, and is often painful in addition to interfering with functionReference 938. Dystonia can be primary, including torticollis and blepharospasm/orofacial dyskinesias or dystonias (Meige syndrome) or part of another condition such as HD, and tardive dyskinesia after dopa-blocking drugsReference 938.
In most of these studies, the effect on sleep was measured as a secondary outcome. The "opioid-sparing" effect refers to the ability of a non-opioid medication (e.g. cannabis, THC) to confer adjunctive opioid analgesia with the use of a lower dose of the opioid, thereby decreasing opioid-associated side effects. While there are some pre-clinical data and data from case studies supporting such an effect for cannabinoids, this is less well-established in published clinical studies. In addition, there were statistically significant improvements in measures of sleep quality and anxiety with cannabis.
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Cannabis use was also not associated with an increased rate of progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individualsReference 1456. In another study, smoking cannabis was associated with lower plasma concentrations of the protease inhibitors indinavir and nelfinavir; whereas dronabinol or placebo had no effectReference 471. However, the decreased plasma levels of protease inhibitors were not associated with an elevated viral load, or changes in CD4+ or CD8+ cell countsReference 655. Furthermore, a retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study among ART-naïve illicit drug users reported that at least daily cannabis use was associated with lower plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load in the first year following seroconversionReference 1457. In another study, HIV positive cannabis users (light or moderate-to-heavy use) showed higher plasma CD4 counts and lower viral load than HIV positive non-cannabis users; the ART status of the subjects was not knownReference 1458.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject experimental driving simulator study with 18 subjects that self-reported using cannabis occasionally (≥ once in the last three months, ≥ three days/week) determined how blood THC concentrations were related to driving impairment with and without alcoholReference 228. The study found that vapourized cannabis (0.5 g dried vapourized cannabis with a THC concentration of either 2.9% THC, or 6.7% THC or 14.5 mg THC or 33.5 mg THC), when combined with alcohol (0.065% peak breath alcohol concentration), increased standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) similar to 0.05 and 0.08% BAC. Furthermore, the effects of alcohol and cannabis on SDLP were additive rather than synergistic with 5 ng/mL THC and 0.05% BAC showing similar SDLP as 0.08% BAC alone.
This week after an excruciating 5 days with spinal pain and no drug relief I was offered Panadol Osteo or Oxynorm or Oxycontin. I hope someone somewhere does get a grant to study the effects of Marijuana on AF. We didn’t cover this in our episode but I can tell you we wouldn’t have any information on it.
AFib has also been associated with inflammatory conditions such as myocarditis and pericarditis and iatrogenically induced by cardiac surgery. Inflammation has been the underlying factor in several cardiovascular diseases and AFib is comorbid with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and heart failure .
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis obtained mean THC concentrations in blood from multiple sites, liver, lung, and kidney of 15.6 ng/mL, 92.4 ng/g, 766.0 ng/g, 44.1 ng/g and what is hemp oil mean THCCOOH concentrations of 35.9 ng/mL, 322.4 ng/g, 42.6 ng/g, 138.5 ng/g, respectively. Heart THC concentrations (two cases) were 184.4 and 759.3 ng/g, and corresponding THCCOOH measured 11.0 and 95.9 ng/g, respectively. Muscle concentrations for THC (two cases) were 16.6 and 2.5 ng/g; corresponding THCCOOH, "confirmed positive" and 1.4 ng/g. The only brain tested in this study showed no THC detected and 2.9 ng/g THCCOOH, low concentrations that correlated with low values in other specimens from this case.
In the first study, heavy chronic daily cannabis smoking (average 10 joints/day for average of 12 years) was associated with reversible and regionally selective downregulation (20% decrease) of brain cortical (but not subcortical) cannabinoid CB1 receptorsReference 501. In the second study, cannabis dependence (with chronic, moderate daily cannabis smoking) was associated with CB1 receptor downregulation (i.e. ~15% decrease at baseline, not under intoxication or withdrawal) compared to healthy controlsReference 334.
Furthermore, blunted affect, reduced rapport, lack of spontaneity, psychomotor retardation, and emotional withdrawal were observed. A within-subject, blinded, placebo-controlled driving simulator study examined the subjective feelings and driving abilities in 14 healthy students after smoking two different cannabis cigarettes of varying potencies (13 and 17 mg THC) or after alcohol intake (0.5 g/kg of body weight to a BAC of 0.05%)Reference 1579. All participants were low to moderate users of cannabis and alcohol, with a reported cannabis use of one to four times per month.